Clash of Steel
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Castles and Fortifications


Images of castles, city walls and gates, military fortifications and other defensible positions of interest to the military historian.

Click on the entry for a larger image and details, or click to go back to the previous index

A excellent reconstruction of the imposing 2 passage gatehouse which might once have stood on that spot at Arbeia Roman Fort
Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne and Wear, UK. October 2007

A reconstruction of a century barracks with separate rooms for each contubernuim of the century with a larger room at the end for the Centurion.
Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne and Wear, UK. October 2007

A view from the veranda of the reconstructed Commanders House at Arbeia
Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne and Wear, UK. October 2007

A view from the top of the reconstructed gatehouse of the plan of part of the fort which has been excavated. The large granaries which Arbeia was re-modeled to house as it's primary function can be seen in the foreground and to the upper right. The P...
Arbeia Roman Fort, South Shields, Tyne and Wear, UK. October 2007

A close-up of the beautifully preserved hypocaust or under-floor heating supports from the main Commandants house or Praetorium at Chesters. A furnace, tended by a slave, would have been built in the walls with chimneys directing hot air around these...
Chesters Roman Fort, near Hexham, Northumberland. May 2005.

The remains of the eastern gate of the fort at Chesters
Chesters Roman Fort, near Hexham, Northumberland. May 2005.

The best preserved set of Roman 2nd century cavalry barracks on Hadrians wall can be seen at Chesters. Here the row of mess rooms can be seen, which faced a matching set across a paved street and fronted by a veranda. The officers quarters would have...
Chesters Roman Fort, near Hexham, Northumberland. May 2005.

A intersting example of a motte and bailey castle, the mound being the remains of a wooden castle built by William I around 1068 with the four-lobed stone keep replacing the wooden structure in the 13th Century. It has a commanding view of the Vale o...
Tower Street, York,UK. March 2005 & March 2006.

The Roman wall which runs from Newcastle in the east to Carlisle in the west was not build to a consistent plan. Initially it was intended to build it all 3 metres (10 feet) wide but this plan was changed and most was built to a narrower design. This...
Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland, UK. May 2008

An excavated infantry barracks, clearly showing the separate rooms which would have accomodated up to 8 soldiers.
Housteads Roman Fort, Northumberland, UK. August 2008

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

Views from a tour around the York Cold War Bunker
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

The medieval castle of Pembroke. It was originally constructed at the beginning of the 13th century to replace an earlier wooden castle built by the Norman baron, Roger de Montgomery in 1093. It became the seat of the Earls of Pembroke and was the bi...
Pembrokeshire, Wales. August 2004

Clearly shows the pillars for the raised floor (not a hypocaust) to keep the valuable grain and stores out of the damp.
Housteads Roman Fort, Northumberland, UK. August 2008

The large, deep trenches to the left and right would have been covered with long wooden boxes having holes in, upon which the Roman soldiers would have sat to 'perform their ablutions'. Water would have been running through the trenches to flush t...
Housteads Roman Fort, Northumberland, UK. August 2008

Members of the Ermine Street Guard display equipment used in Roman times along with two excellent campaign tents which would have housed up to 8 legionaries with their equipment. These tents have been accurately re-created using authentic materials a...
Housteads Roman Fort, Northumberland, UK. August 2008

Sandal Castle from which Richard, Duke of York sallied forth to confront the Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Wakefield, 30th Dec 1460, where he was killed and his army crushed. Little is now left of the castle itself, but the earthworks of the o...
Sandal, near Wakefield, West Yorkshire. Oct 2004

The first stone castle in Scarborough was built on the headland dominating the town and harbour around 1135 by William Le Gros, Earl of Albemarle. The current castle was built in the early 13th century and expanded later by King John and Henry III. ...
Scarborough, North Yorkshire. Summer 2004

One of the defences built in the 1860's to protect the Welsh Pembrokshire coast from the threat of French invasion. It is built on a rocky outcrop to the east of the small town of Tenby. It has gun embrasures down both the northern and southern sides...
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales. August 2004

The impressive remains of Tenby's medieval city walls, which also protected the town and defied the Parliament's troops when Tenby was held for the King in May 1648 during the 2nd English Civil War.
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales. August 2004

The remains of the north gate of the wall fort, with the remains of Hadrians Wall carrying on into the distance towards the small copse. This section of the wall was built to the later, narrow design - see other entry for Heddon on the Wall.
Housteads Roman Fort, Northumberland, UK. August 2008

The Tower of London
London, England. January, 2005

York Cold War Bunker - the No.20 Group Royal Observer Corps bunker built in 1961 to monitor nuclear bombs in the event of war
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

York Cold War Bunker - the No.20 Group Royal Observer Corps bunker built in 1961 to monitor nuclear bombs in the event of war
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007

York Cold War Bunker - the No.20 Group Royal Observer Corps bunker built in 1961 to monitor nuclear bombs in the event of war
Acomb, near York, UK. Feb 2007